icon
Dubai Knowledge Village

Dubai, United Arab Emirates

icon
dubai@hofstede-insights.com

Office Hours: 9:00am - 5:00pm

Intercultural Management Solution

Whether working globally or locally, few organisations can work solely within their own cultural context. Successful management of cultural diversity has therefore become a strategic advantage.

National Culture

Whether working globally or locally, few organisations can work solely within their own cultural context. Successful management of cultural diversity has therefore become a strategic advantage.

The six dimensions of national culture are based on extensive research done by Professor Geert Hofstede, Gert Jan Hofstede, Michael Minkov and their research teams.

The application of this research is used worldwide in both academic and professional management settings.

Dimensions of National Culture (6D Model)

The Hofstede model of national culture consists of six dimensions. The cultural dimensions represent independent preferences for one state of affairs over another that distinguish countries (rather than individuals) from each other. The country scores on the dimensions are relative, in that we are all human and simultaneously we are all unique. In other words, culture can only be used meaningfully by comparison. The model consists of the following dimensions:

D1

POWER DISTANCE INDEX (PDI)

This dimension expresses the degree to which the less powerful members of a society accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. The fundamental issue here is how a society handles inequalities among people.

D2

INDIVIDUALISM VERSUS COLLECTIVISM (IDV)

The high side of this dimension, called Individualism, can be defined as a preference for a loosely-knit social framework in which individuals are expected to take care of only themselves and their immediate families.

D3

MASCULINITY VERSUS FEMININITY (MAS)

The Masculinity side of this dimension represents a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness, and material rewards for success. Society at large is more competitive. Its opposite, Femininity, stands for a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life. Society at large is more consensus-oriented.

D4

UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE INDEX (UAI)

The Uncertainty Avoidance dimension expresses the degree to which the members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity. The fundamental issue here is how a society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we try to control the future or just let it happen?

D5

LONG TERM ORIENTATION VERSUS SHORT TERM NORMATIVE ORIENTATION (LTO)

Every society has to maintain some links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and the future. Societies prioritize these two existential goals differently.

D6

INDULGENCE VERSUS RESTRAINT (IVR)

Indulgence stands for a society that allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural human drives related to enjoying life and having fun. Restraint stands for a society that suppresses gratification of needs and regulates it by means of strict social norms.